Burmese Python and Other Constrictors Issues

See more in our Federal Legislation Alerts Section


Challenges in Identifying Sites Climatically Matched to the Native Ranges of Animal Invaders Rodda, etc...February 2011 NEW


USGS Press: Technical Announcement: Challenges identified in using models to predict snake and other animal invasions 2/9/2011 NEW


FWC Report: Fatal Kid's Injuries Due to Python's Escape 2009 (4MB PDF) NEW


Cold-induced mortality of invasive Burmese pythons in south Florida Mazzotti, etc...Spring 2010 NEW


Burmese Pythons Climate Data


Cold weather and the potential range of invasive Burmese pythons Avery, etc...Spring 2010 NEW


Federal Register: Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Boa Constrictor, Four Python Species, and Four Anaconda Species as Injurious Reptiles 3/12/2010 NEW

USFWS Press: Service Seeks Public Comment on Plan To Restrict Giant Invasive Snakes (Deadline 5/11/2010) 3/11/2010

Salazar Moves to Ban Importation and Interstate Transfer of Burmese Python and Eight Other Giant Invasive Snakes

A Flawed USGS Report on Giant Constrictors By David G. Barker and Tracy M. Barker

The Precautionary Principle and Pythons
By David G. Barker and Tracy M. Barker

Civil Reptile Rights Activist March in 2010 Civil March Proposal

FAQ: USA FEDERAL BILLS H.R. 2811 and S. 373 to Include Python genera as an Injurious Animal Winter 2009/2010

CAPTIVE PYTHONS AND BOAS IN THE USA: Separating Facts from Fiction December 2009

USGS Press: Report Documents the Risks of Giant Invasive Snakes in the U.S. 10/13/2009

Giant Constrictors: Biological and Management Profiles and an Establishment Risk Assessment for Nine Large Species of Pythons, Anacondas, and the Boa Constrictor Full Propaganda Ridden USGS Report, 2009

FAQs: Python Permit Program

PRESS: Secretary Salazar Announces Renewed Commitment, Expanded Programs to Eliminate Pythons from Everglades 7/17/2009

Editorial: Python Attacks And Hysterical Politicians By Zuzana Kukol, 7/12/2009

USARK: Wake Up Call to Reptile Nation! 7/11/2009


Subcommittee on Water and Wildlife and Subcommittee on Oversight joint hearing entitled, “Threats to Native Wildlife Species.” 7/8/2009, 10:00 AM EDT, EPW Hearing  Room - 406 Dirksen ARCHIVE WEBCAST
Witnesses: Opening Remarks, Panel 1
Gary Frazer, Assistant Director for Fisheries and Habitat Conservation, United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Bill Clay, Acting Associate Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture
Witnesses: Opening Remarks, Panel 2
Dr. Gregory Ruiz, Senior Scientist, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Marine Invasions Research Laboratory
Rebecca Humphries, Director, Michigan Department of Natural Resources
John Torgan, Narragansett Baykeeper, Save the Bay, Inc.
Jeffrey E. Hill, Assistant Professor, Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, University of Florida
Statement of Senator Carl Levin
Statement of Senator Bill Nelson


USARK: Press Release July 2, 2009

Scott Hollifield: Python project bound to go HORRIBLY WRONG The McDowell News, 6/25/2009

REXANO Video: Exotic Animal Owners Under Attack

Captive Constrictor Snakes (Non-Venomous) Related Human Fatalities in the USA by State and Type, Yearly and Lifetime Odds: 1990 - 2008

Video: Pythons Set Up Home in South Carolina 6/24/2009

News: Foridal State wildlife officials propose bounty on pythons in Everglades 5/28/2009

Biologists: Deadly Pythons May Not Get Out of Florida 8/14/2008 FOX News

Claims of Potential Expansion throughout the U.S. by Invasive Python Species Are Contradicted by Ecological Niche Models R. Alexander Pyron1,2*, Frank T. Burbrink2, Timothy J. Guiher1,2 August 2008

REXANO Opposes Addition of Constrictor Snakes to the List of Injurious Wildlife Under the Lacey Act.

Input Needed on Possible Federal Boa and Python Ban Deadline April 30, 2008 

ADDRESSES: You may submit comments by one of the following methods:
Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov
Follow the instructions for submitting comments. HERE
U.S. mail or hand-delivery: Public Comments Processing,
Attn: RIN 1018-AV68, Division of Policy and Directives Management, U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401 North Fairfax Drive, Suite 222,
Arlington, VA 22203.
Instructions: We will not accept e-mail or faxes. We will post all
comments on http://www.regulations.gov. This generally means that we
will post any personal information you provide us (see the Public
Comments section below for more information)

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Erin Williams, Branch of Invasive
Species at (703) 358-2034 or erin_williams@fws.gov

The Distribution of the Burmese Python, Python molurus bivittatus By David G. Barker and Tracy M. Barker NEW

Comments on a Flawed Herpetological Paper and an Improper and Damaging News Release from a Government Agency NEW

Sample Letters by Eric Roscoe and Cynthia Marsh, feel free to use as a guideline

NEWS: Global Warming: Boo, Hiss-Now for some biting humor By By Gene Weingarten, Washington Post, 3/30/2008

Propaganda behind the python proposal:

USGS Maps Show Potential Non-Native Python Habitat Along Three U.S. Coasts 2/20/2008

Federal News Radio Snakes on a . . . Map Gordon Rodda, Zoologist, USGS, 2/21/2008

MP3   wma


Klein, Hastings Express Concerns Over Rise in Invasive Pythons in the Everglades 9/5/2007

Everglades invaders prompt collaborative snake studies 10/13/2006

Injurious Animal Regulations and Permit Process if the Proposal is Accepted

§ 16.22 Injurious wildlife permits

The Director may, upon receipt of an application and in accordance with the issuance criteria of this section, issue a permit authorizing the importation into or shipment between the continental United States, the District of Columbia, Hawaii, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any possession of the United States of injurious wildlife (See subpart B of this part) for zoological, educational, medical, or scientific purposes.

(a) Application requirements. Submit applications for permits to import, transport or acquire injurious wildlife for such purposes to the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, (Attention: Office of Management Authority), 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Room 700, Arlington, VA 22203. Submit applications in writing on a Federal Fish and Wildlife License/Permit application (Form 3–200) and attach all of the following information:

(1) The number of specimens and the common and scientific names (genus and species) of each species of live wildlife proposed to be imported or otherwise acquired, transported and possessed;

(2) The purpose of such importation or other acquisition, transportation and possession;

(3) The address of the premises where such live wildlife will be kept in captivity;

(4) A statement of the applicant's qualifications and previous experience in caring for and handling captive wildlife.

(b) Additional permit conditions. In addition to the general conditions set forth in part 13 of this subchapter B, permits to import or ship injurious wildlife for zoological, educational, medical, or scientific purposes shall be subject to the following conditions:

(1) All live wildlife acquired under permit and all progeny thereof, must be confined in the approved facilities on the premises authorized in the permit.

(2) No live wildlife, acquired under permit, or any eggs or progeny thereof, may be sold, donated, traded, loaned, or transferred to any other person unless such person has a permit issued by the Director under §16.22 authorizing him to acquire and possess such wildlife or the eggs or progeny thereof.

(3) Permittees shall notify the nearest Special Agent-in-Charge (see §10.22 of this chapter) by telephone or other expedient means within 24 hours following the escape of any wildlife imported or transported under authority of a permit issued under this section, or the escape of any progeny of such wildlife, unless otherwise specifically exempted by terms of the permit.

(c) Issuance criteria. The Director shall consider the following in determining whether to issue a permit to import or ship injurious wildlife for zoological, educational, medical, or scientific purposes:

(1) Whether the wildlife is being imported or otherwise acquired for a bona fide scientific, medical, educational, or zoological exhibition purpose;

(2) Whether the facilities for holding the wildlife in captivity have been inspected and approved, and consist of a basic cage or structure of a design and material adequate to prevent escape which is maintained inside a building or other facility of such structure that the wildlife could not escape from the building or other facility after escaping from the cage or structure maintained therein;

(3) Whether the applicant is a responsible person who is aware of the potential dangers to public interests posed by such wildlife, and who by reason of his knowledge, experience, and facilities reasonably can be expected to provide adequate protection for such public interests; and

(4) If such wildlife is to be imported or otherwise acquired for zoological or aquarium exhibition purposes, whether such exhibition or display will be open to the public during regular appropriate hours.

(d) The Office of Management and Budget approved the information collection requirements contained in this part 16 under 44 U.S.C. 3507 and assigned OMB Control Number 1018–0093. The Service may not conduct or sponsor, and you are not required to respond to, a collection of information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. We are collecting this information to provide information necessary to evaluate permit applications. We will use this information to review permit applications and make decisions, according to criteria established in various Federal wildlife conservation statutes and regulations, on the issuance, suspension, revocation, or denial of permits. You must respond to obtain or retain a permit. We estimate the public reporting burden for these reporting requirements to average 2 hours per response, including time for reviewing instructions, gathering and maintaining data, and completing and reviewing the forms. Direct comments regarding the burden estimate or any other aspect of these reporting requirements to the Service Information Collection Control Officer, MS–222 ARLSQ, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC 20240, or the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (1018–0093), Washington, DC 20603.